性愛無罪
9/13全球串聯挺同志
抗議尼加拉瓜歧視同志法令


尼加拉瓜《刑法》第204條明文規定:
"Anyone who induces, promotes, propagandizes or practices in scandalous form sexual intercourse between persons of the same sex commits the crime of sodomy and shall incur 1 to 3 years’ imprisonment". (任何人只要引誘、提倡、宣傳或從事可恥的同性之間性行為,便觸犯雞姦/肛交罪行,可被判處一至三年有期徒刑)

過去十五年來,拉丁美洲已有約六個國家陸續針對同性間的性行為除罪,但是尼加拉瓜卻仍在1992年修法時加入歧視同志的條文,明文將同性之間的性行為入罪,目前,尼加拉瓜是拉丁美洲唯一保有「雞姦法」的國家。由於這項法令的存在,尼加拉瓜的同志及跨性社群(LGBT)及社運團體都面臨極大的壓力與威脅,甚至連進行性別人權教育、性教育的團體和工作者,都有可能因為這項法令的存在而因此入罪。

這項法令的制訂已經違反基本人權。國際特赦組織(Amnesty International)在今年八月的調查報告中指出,尼加拉瓜將同志性行為入罪的法令,已經嚴重侵犯人權,不僅違反尼加拉瓜《憲法》當中保障人民的隱私權、表意自由及不受歧視的權利,同時,也違反《公民與政治權利國際公約》當中對人民基本權利的諸多保障,例如性別平等(第3條),表意自由(第19條),保障人民隱私不受任意侵犯(第17條),思想良心與宗教自由(第18條),法律之前人人平等、不受任何形式歧視的權利(第2及26條)。

此外,指標性的「杜寧對澳洲」一案((Toonen v. Australia:1991年澳洲塔斯曼尼亞(Tasmania)上議院否決廢除禁止同性性行為的法例。由於當時澳洲的聯邦政府沒有任何相關的法例可以凌駕塔斯曼尼亞這條例,塔斯曼尼亞的同志團體遂向「聯合國人權委員會」(United Nations Human Rights Committee) 投訴。投訴的同志團體代表杜寧 (Toonen) 指出,塔斯曼尼亞的法例違反了《公民與政治權利國際公約》中保障個人私生活不受侵犯的權利(第17條),締約國有責任確保所有人享有公約明訂的權利(第2條第1款)。此外,杜寧的投訴指出,塔斯曼尼亞的法例同時違反公約中保障「法律面前人人平等」的條款(第26條)。)) 之後,聯合國人權委員會曾公開要求各國不僅應該廢除歧視同性戀的相關法令,同時應該在憲法或基本法當中,進一步立法確保人民不會因為性傾向而遭到歧視。身為《公民與政治權利國際公約》締約國以及聯合國一員的尼加拉瓜,理應遵守以上的國際公約,早日廢除所有對同志歧視的法令。

去年十一月尼加拉瓜總統大選,政權移轉改由左派執政,總統奧蒂嘉自今年一月就職以來,便陸續著手修改歧視同志及跨性社群(LGBT)的相關法令,雖然有所成效也值得鼓勵,但是因面臨來自國內天主教教會的強大壓力,歧視同志及跨性社群的法令仍然存在。

因此,繼去年(2006年)5月17日拉丁美洲各國性別人權及人權團體共同發起串聯抗議行動之後(共計有墨西哥、祕魯、智利、阿根廷、巴拉圭、烏拉圭等國參與),今年在9月15日尼加拉瓜獨立紀念日前夕,國際特赦組織墨西哥總會發起全球串聯行動,不只號召拉丁美洲各國運動團體的支持,更進一步作國際串聯,目前已獲得世界各地性別及人權團體的聲援與回應,將在今年9月13日同步進行抗議陳情的城市,目前有墨西哥墨西哥市、智利聖地牙哥、巴拉圭亞松森、加拿大蒙特婁、美國舊金山、休士頓、瑞典斯德哥爾摩、冰島雷克雅未克、德國柏林、奧地利維也納、英國倫敦,以及台灣台北等城市。

我們號召台灣的朋友,在台灣尼加拉瓜大使館前,與海外國際友人同步進行抗議並遞交陳情書,歡迎台灣LGBT社群、人權團體,以及所有支持的朋友一同參與,要求尼加拉瓜將同志性行為除罪化,尊重基本人權,廢除充滿性別與性向歧視的法令。


【陳情行動相關訊息】

時間:2007年9月13日(週四)上午11:00
地點:尼加拉瓜大使館(台北市天母西路62巷9號3樓,使館特區)

共同發起團體:
國際特赦組織台灣總會、性別人權協會、同志諮詢熱線協會、
青少年性別文教會、台灣同志遊行聯盟、台灣人權促進會


* 注意事項:
一、 我們會準備寫有中、英、西文的彩虹標語,所以請大家盡量穿著黑色或深色上衣。
二、 歡迎攜帶各團體的旗幟,也歡迎自製相關標語。
三、 如何到達使館特區:
1. 專人帶領:9月13日上午10:30於捷運石牌站外集合,由手持彩虹旗的朋友帶領前往。
2. 自行前往:於捷運石牌站對面搭乘往天母的任何一班公車,至「齊賢華夏」站下車,從天母西路62巷口「世新精品店」﹝磺溪橋旁﹞進入,直走約三分鐘)


聯絡人:吳佳臻(0916-969-020 ; danawu1225@hotmail.com)





TAKE ACTION!
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people at risk in Nicaragua

8 September 2007

In spite of positive initiatives across the Americas, Nicaragua continues to criminalize consensual same-sex sexual relations.

Although to Amnesty International’s knowledge no one has to date been prosecuted under Article 204 of the Nicaraguan Penal Code, it potentially criminalizes not only gay men, lesbians and bisexual people in same-sex relationships, but is vague enough to permit the prosecution of individuals for activities such as campaigning for LGBT rights or anyone providing sexual health information or services. Anyone imprisoned under this law would be considered by Amnesty International to be a prisoner of conscience.


"Anyone who induces, promotes, propagandizes or practices in scandalous form sexual intercourse between persons of the same sex commits the crime of sodomy and shall incur 1 to 3 years’ imprisonment". Article 204

Amnesty International considers the use of "sodomy" laws to imprison individuals for same-sex relations in private is a grave violation of human rights. Article 204 contradicts numerous provisions in international human rights law. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), to which Nicaragua acceded without reservations in 1980, protects the rights to freedom of expression (article 19), freedom from arbitrary interference with the right to privacy (article 17) and freedom of conscience (article 18). It affirms the equality of all people before the law and the right to freedom from discrimination (articles 2 and 26). In the landmark 1994 case of Toonen v. Australia, the United Nations Human Rights Committee, which monitors states’ compliance with the ICCPR, held that sexual orientation should be understood to be a status protected from discrimination under these articles. States cannot limit the enjoyment of human rights on the basis of sexual orientation. The UN Human Rights Committee has since urged states not only to repeal laws criminalizing homosexuality but also to enshrine the prohibition of discrimination based on sexual orientation into their constitutions or other fundamental laws. Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is also prohibited under other international human rights treaties to which Nicaragua is a state party.


Background information

On 11 June 1992 the Nicaraguan National Assembly approved a number of amendments to the Penal Code regarding sexual offences. Article 204 of the Penal Code, in its amended version, established the crime of "sodomy". The new law came into force in September 1992.

In November 1992 a coalition known as the Campaign for Sexuality without Prejudices, comprising, amongst others, lawyers and lesbian and gay activists, presented an appeal to the Supreme Court of Justice, challenging the law as unconstitutional. The appeal presented detailed arguments stating that Article 204 of the revised Penal Code violated 12 articles of the Nicaraguan constitution, including the right to privacy, to freedom of expression and to non-discrimination before the law. It also argued that by violating these rights, Article 204 contravened international human rights standards. In March 1994, the Supreme Court rejected the appeal, concluding that Article 204 did not violate any of the rights guaranteed in the Constitution.

WHAT YOU CAN DO
RECOMMENDED ACTION:
Please send letters, in Spanish or your own language:
? Stating that the majority of countries in the Americas region have decriminalized homosexuality;
? Reminding the authorities that all people are equal before the law and that they are obligated to ensure that the human rights of every individual in Nicaragua are fully respected, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity;
? Urging the Nicaraguan government to repeal article 204 of the Penal Code and decriminalize homosexuality, in line with international human rights standards;
? Stating that no-one should be imprisoned or detained solely for their real or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity, including for same-sex sexual relations between consenting adults in private, for advocating LGBT rights, or for their political beliefs or activities under the pretext of charges of homosexuality.

At the end of your letters, ask for their response to the concerns you have raised.

Addresses:
The President of Nicaragua
Comandante Daniel Ortega Saavedra
Presidente de la Rep?blica
Casa Presidencial
Managua, Nicaragua
Email: daniel@presidencia.gob.ni
Salutation: Dear President Ortega Saavedra

The Minister of Foreign Affairs
Lic. Samuel Santos L?pez
Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores
Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores
Del Cine Gonz?lez 1 cuadra al Sur, sobre Avenida Bol?var
Managua, Nicaragua
Fax: (505) 228-5102, 228-5103, 222-4025
Salutation: Dear Minister

The President of the National Assembly
Ingeniero Ren? N??ez T?llez
Presidente de la Asamblea Nacional
Asamblea Nacional de la Rep?blica de Nicaragua
Avenida Bol?var, Apto. Postal 4659
Managua, Nicaragua
Email: presiden@asamblea.gob.ni
Salutation: Dear President N??ez T?llez

Please also send copies to diplomatic representatives of Nicaragua accredited to your country and the Ambassador of your country to Nicaragua.